The problem of statistical inference in inequality research^{ }has persisted despite the solutions long suggested by asymptotic^{ }theory. This article provides a thorough analysis of the theoretical^{ }and practical aspects of conducting statistical inference in^{ }the context of inequality data. Using the income surveys of^{ }the Luxembourg Income Study, the article outlines in detail^{ }the new bootstrap procedures, assesses their performance, and^{ }demonstrates their effectiveness in evaluating levels and trends^{ }in cross-national inequality. It provides an analytical evaluation^{ }of current advancements in inequality measurement and for the^{ }first time applies these methods in the context of comparative^{ }research, but it also can be used as practical guide for handling^{ }the problems of statistical inference in more general social^{ }scientific settings.

**Key Words:** inequality • statistical inference • bootstrap confidence intervals