Multiple Auxiliary Variables in Nonresponse Adjustment

May 19, 2011

Kreuter, F., & Olson, K. (2011). Multiple Auxiliary Variables in Nonresponse Adjustment Sociological Methods & Research, 40 (2), 311-332 DOI: 10.1177/0049124111400042 


Frauke Kreuter, University of Maryland, College Park, USA and Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany,


Henk Roose, John Lievens, and Hans Waege The Joint Effect of Topic Interest and Follow-Up Procedures on the Response in a Mail Questionnaire: An Empirical Test of the Leverage-Saliency Theory in Audience Research Sociological Methods & Research 2007 35: 410-428.

February 7, 2010

Leverage-saliency theory provides a seminal basis for research on the differential effects of response-facilitating techniques in surveys. In this article, a quasi-experimental design is applied to analyze the effect of follow-up procedures, taking into account the sample persons’ interest in the survey topic. The authors use multilevel logistic regression to map response on a mail questionnaire in the second step of a two-step data collection procedure. It is found that—after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic and performance-related covariates—the effect of follow-up procedures is larger for those less interested in the survey topic. As such, these findings are an empirical confirmation of the leverage-saliency theory. Some implications for survey research are discussed.

Key Words: nonresponse • survey participation • leverage-saliency theory • Total Design Method • topic interest